Type 2 diabetes in children

Type 2 diabetes occurs when the body tissues cannot use insulin properly. Overtime the pancreas cannot make enough insulin. Insulin is a hormone that helps the body’s cells use  sugar for energy. It also helps the body store extra energy in the muscle, fat and liver cells.

type 2 diabetes

Without insulin, sugar cannot get into the cells to do it’s work. Instead it stays in the blood , causing high blood sugar. If your blood sugar is high most of the time, you have diabetes.

High blood sugar can result in the following :

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Vital signs in children

Vital signs include heart rate, breathing rate which is respiration , blood pressure and temperature. It is important to know the normal range for vital signs because it helps  you notice problems early . It also helps your relieve your concerns you may have about how your child is doing.

baby's vital signs

Normal rage for vital signs in children

7 childhood diseases that can be prevented by vaccine

These seven childhood diseases can be prevented by vaccine

Diphtheria  ( the “D” in DTaP vaccine )

  • symptoms include a thick coating in the back of the throat  that makes it hard to breathe
  • it can lead to breathing problems, paralysis and heart failure

childhood diseases

Tetanus ( the “T” in DTaP )

  • it is also known as lock jaw
  • signs include painful tightening of the muscles , usually all over the body
  • it can lead to stiffness of the jaw that can make it difficult for people to open their mouths and swallow

Pertussis ( the “P” in DTaP )

  • it is also known as whopping cough
  • signs include violent coughing spells that can make it difficult  for a baby to eat, drink or breathe .  The spells can last for several weeks
  • it can lead to pneumonia, seizures , brain damage and death
  • it can be very dangerous to infants
  • most deaths related to pertussis occur in babies younger than 3 months

Hib ( Haemophilus influenza type B)

signs include fever, headaches, stiff neck, cough and shortness of breath it may be asymptomatic in mild cases it can lead to meningitis

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Water intoxication in babies

Giving your baby water can actually harm him. Giving too much water to  children under 1 year  especially during the first 9 months of life  can be dangerous.

water intoxication

Too much water dilutes a baby’s normal sodium level  and can lead to seizures, brain damage , coma or even death.

Breast milk and formula provide the child  with all the important nutrients he needs. If you feel your baby needs  a little water , it should be  be limited to two to three ounces at a time. The water should only be offered after the baby has satisfied his  hunger with breastfeeding or formula.

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Congenital syphilis

Congenital syphilis is when a baby is born infected with syphilis. This infection is life-threatening . A pregnant woman with syphilis  can spread the infection  to her unborn child through the placenta. Most of the time syphilis  is transferred to the baby during pregnancy, However it  can also happen during vaginal delivery. This happens  when there is direct contact of your baby with  a syphilis sore .

congenital syphilis

Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease STD. You can get it through unprotected sex with an infected individual or through touch such as kissing or touching an infected individual’s sore. Untreated syphilis during pregnancy can be passed on to your baby. This can cause problems or even death in the baby.

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Immunization for premature babies

Some parents of premature and low birth weight babies get concerned about immunization. Their main problem is that the immunization are made with normal , full term babies in mind and whether the same recommendations apply to the premature and low birth weight babies.

premature babies

However you pediatrician will recommend that all babies need to be given  immunization on the standard schedule  when they reach the age at which the shot is normally given.

You have to keep in mind that premature babies can have diseases  that vaccines can prevent . They also have a greater chance of having disease related problems. All the available vaccines  are safe when given to preterm and low birth babies. Any side effects associated with the vaccine are similar for both premature and full term babies .

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Complications of ear infection in children

Complications from ear infection

Ear infection is also known as  otitis media. It is inflammation  of the middle ear usually caused by a bacteria.  This results in   fluid build up  behind the eardrum.

ear infection

Complications  from ear infection are rare but can happen. Some of these complications include the following :

  • hearing loss : Mild to moderate hearing loss may occur. This is usually temporary. Permanent hearing loss is rare. Children with repeated hearing problems may have trouble talking and understanding speech
  • raptured ear drum : Continuous build up of fluid in the middle ear can cause it to rapture. This leaves a small hole that often heals within 2 weeks

Another complication of acute ear infections is ongoing inflammation of the middle ear. This condition is known as chronic suppurative otitis media. The main symptom of this condition is a repeated or ongoing drainage of pus from the middle ear through a small hole in the eardrum. Most children with this condition have some hearing loss. The treatment is usually antibiotic therapy .

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Early signs of cerebral palsy

Cerebral palsy is a disorder that affects muscle tone, movement and motor skills. It is caused by brain damage that usually happens  before or during childbirth.

cerebral palsy

Parents and caregivers are usually the first to notice the signs of cerebral palsy. Parents detect a problem when the child doesnt reach developmental milestones at predictable times.

Early signs of developmental delays possibly linked with cerebral palsy

3 months : Baby does not

  • follow objects with her  eyes
  • turn to sudden noise or familiar voice
  • smile or show facial expressions

5 months : Baby does not

  •  hold her  head straight
  • hold her  head up while lying on their stomach or in a supported sitting position

6 months : Baby is unable

  • to roll over

After 6 months , babies should be able to push food out of their mouths instead of accepting it as most babies would at this age

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Is it normal to find a little blood in my baby’s diaper ?

Is it normal for a baby to cry without tears ?

Crying without tears in babies

In most cases, it is normal for a baby to cry without tears.  The tear ducts of babies are still developing after birth. As a result it is normal  for them to cry without shedding tears.


Most babies try crying tears around 2 weeks of age, however some can take longer.

Some newborns have clogged tear ducts. This means that they  can make tears but the tears are not draining properly. The accumulation of tears can result in yellow discharge which the  doctor treat with drops or ointment.  He will also tell you how to clean your baby’s eye and massage the tear duct if necessary.

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